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Octopus vs Underwater Maze

This is a remarkably endearing and educational video. Mark Rober taught us many interesting facts about octopi. The plural can also also be octopuses. He did point out that their blue blood is copper-based, and that they have three hearts. What he didn’t mention is that all three hearts beat with independent rhythms. Among their many defenses, such as camouflage and squirting water out of their jet to swim away very quickly, is the ability to squirt a cloud of ink, thereby obscuring their view from enemies. The largest octopi, living off the coast of Washington State on the west coast of the United States, have been known to grow to beyond 30 feet across (9.1 meters) and weigh as much as 600 pounds (272 kg) Their eyes can be as big as 15 inches (38cm) in diameter.

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Volcanoes

Volcanoes are vents or openings in the Earth’s crust that allow molten rock, gases, and ash to escape from beneath the surface. That and molten iron is the stuff this whole earth is made of, and it’s right under your feet, although very far down in most cases.

The word “volcano” is derived from Vulcan, the Roman god of fire.

There are approximately 1,500 active volcanoes worldwide.

The largest volcano on Earth is Mauna Loa in Hawaii, which is also the largest shield volcano. It rises about 13,678 feet (4,169 meters) above sea level and extends about 30,000 feet (9,144 meters) below sea level.

The tallest volcano in the solar system is Olympus Mons on Mars, reaching a height of about 69,841 feet (21,287 meters), almost three times the height of Mount Everest.

Volcanoes can form on land or underwater, with some of the most spectacular volcanic activity occurring beneath the ocean surface.

The eruptions of volcanoes can vary widely, ranging from peaceful lava flows to explosive eruptions that can eject ash, gases, and pyroclastic materials into the atmosphere.

When the Krakatoa volcano erupted in 1883, the sound could be heard 3,000 miles (4,800 km) away.

Volcanic ash can travel long distances, carried by wind currents. The 2010 eruption of Eyjafjallajökull in Iceland disrupted air travel across Europe for several days due to the ash cloud it produced.

Volcanoes are responsible for creating new land, as the lava cools and solidifies over time.

Volcanic eruptions can produce pyroclastic flows, which are fast-moving currents of hot gas, ash, and volcanic materials that rush down the slopes of a volcano.

Your author and his wife had the privilege of walking on brand new real estate that hadn’t existed the day before on the Big Island of Hawaii. We were advised to bring face masks in case the wind direction shifted, wear winter-like clothing to shield us from the heat, and wear boots. Of course most of that clothing isn’t available on Hawaii, but we did dress in layers. As we walked across the dry lava, we could see cracks leading 2 inches (5 cm) down still glowing red.

We came to a river of lava, a pyroclastic flow, and were able to poke 6-foot (2-meter) ohia sticks (a straight hardwood) into the molten lava and pull some out on the instantly flaming sticks. It turned into smooth, hardened glass, with long streamers as drips froze in mid-fall. Our sneakers were smoking, and when we returned, we found that tho soles had slightly melted into new shapes.

The famous volcanic eruption of Mount Vesuvius in 79 AD buried the cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum, preserving them remarkably well.

Some volcanoes exhibit a lava lake, a pool of molten lava that can be observed within the volcano’s crater.

Volcanic lightning, known as “dirty thunderstorms,” can occur during volcanic eruptions due to the electrical charges generated by ash particles colliding in the plume.

The largest volcanic eruption in recorded history was the eruption of Mount Tambora in Indonesia in 1815. It caused the “Year Without a Summer” in 1816, resulting in widespread crop failures and unusually cold temperatures.

The volcanic activity on Io, one of Jupiter’s moons, is the most intense in the solar system. Its surface is covered with hundreds of active volcanoes.

Volcanic eruptions can create unique geological formations, such as volcanic cones, calderas, and lava tubes.

Some volcanoes have produced massive eruptions in the past, known as supervolcanic eruptions. The most recent one occurred about 74,000 years ago at Toba in Sumatra, Indonesia.

Underwater volcanoes, also known as seamounts, can form islands over time when they emerge from the ocean surface.

The deadliest volcanic eruption in history occurred in 1815 on Mount Tambora, killing an estimated 71,000 people.

Some volcanoes, known as “stratovolcanoes” or composite volcanoes, are made up of alternating layers of lava, ash, and rock.

The Hawaiian Islands were formed by a series of volcanic eruptions over millions of years, as the Pacific tectonic plate moved over a hot spot in the Earth’s mantle.

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Science Jokes

Why don’t scientists trust atoms? Because they make up everything!

Did you hear about the chemist who was reading a book about helium? He just couldn’t put it down!

Why was the math book sad? Because it had too many problems!

What did one magnet say to the other magnet? I find you very attractive!

Why do chemists like nitrates so much? They’re cheaper than day rates!

How do you organize a space party? You planet!

What did the zero say to the eight? Nice belt!

Why did the physics teacher break up with the biology teacher? There was no chemistry.

What’s the fastest way to determine the sex of a chromosome? Pull down its genes!

Why don’t skeletons fight each other? They don’t have the guts!

Did you hear about the biologist who had twins? He named them Gene and Jean!

What do you call a dinosaur with an extensive vocabulary? A thesaurus!

Why did the bacteria join the gym? They wanted to get a little culture!

What’s a scientist’s favorite type of dog? A lab!

What’s the difference between a chemist and a plumber? A chemist washes their hands before they go to the bathroom, while a plumber washes their hands afterward.

Did you hear about the chemist who lost an electron? He’s positive he’ll never find it.

Two antennas met on a roof and fell in love. The ceremony wasn’t much, but the reception was excellent!

What’s a physicist’s favorite food? Fission chips!

Why did the bicycle fall over? Because it was two-tired!

How did the mathematician solve his constipation problem? He worked it out with a pencil!

What did one DNA strand say to the other? “Do these genes make me look fat?”

Did you hear about the mathematician who’s afraid of negative numbers? He will stop at nothing to avoid them.

What’s the difference between a dog and a marine biologist? One wags a tail, and the other tags a whale.

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Geology

The Earth’s inner core, composed mostly of iron and nickel, is hotter than the surface of the Sun, reaching temperatures of up to 5,500 degrees Celsius (9,932 degrees Fahrenheit).

The Earth’s magnetic field has flipped numerous times throughout its history, with the north and south magnetic poles reversing positions.

The highest mountain on Earth, Mount Everest, continues to grow at a rate of about 4 millimeters per year due to the constant tectonic activity between the Indian and Eurasian plates.

The deepest part of the Earth’s ocean, the Mariana Trench in the western Pacific Ocean, reaches a depth of approximately 11,034 meters (36,201 feet or 7 miles), which is deeper than Mount Everest is tall.

Approximately 71% of the Earth’s surface is covered by water, with the remaining 29% consisting of landmasses.

The largest volcano on Earth, Mauna Loa in Hawaii, is also one of the most active. It rises about 9,144 meters (30,000 feet) from its base on the ocean floor, making it taller than Mount Everest when measured from its underwater base.

The Earth’s crust is made up of several tectonic plates that are constantly moving. Over millions of years, these movements have caused the continents to shift and collide, forming mountain ranges and other geologic features.

The Earth’s magnetic field, which protects the planet from harmful solar radiation, is generated by the motion of molten iron in the outer core.

The Grand Canyon in the United States is not only a magnificent natural wonder but also a geologic timeline, with its layered rock formations representing millions of years of Earth’s history.

Diamonds, which are formed deep within the Earth’s mantle, can be brought to the surface through volcanic eruptions. They are essentially made of carbon atoms that have been subjected to immense pressure and heat.

The Earth’s lithosphere, which includes the crust and uppermost part of the mantle, is divided into several large and small tectonic plates. These plates move in relation to each other, causing earthquakes, volcanic activity, and the formation of mountain ranges.

The largest earthquake ever recorded on Earth was the Great Chilean Earthquake of 1960, with a magnitude of 9.5. It caused widespread destruction and triggered tsunamis that affected coastal regions across the Pacific Ocean.

The Earth’s outermost layer, the crust, is thinner beneath the oceans (about 5-10 kilometers or 3-6 miles) and thicker beneath the continents (about 30-50 kilometers or 18-31 miles).

The Earth’s oldest rocks, found in Western Greenland, are estimated to be about 3.8 billion years old, providing valuable insights into the early history of our planet.

The movement of tectonic plates can cause the formation of volcanoes along subduction zones, where one tectonic plate is forced beneath another. This process is responsible for the “Ring of Fire,” a major area in the basin of the Pacific Ocean known for its intense volcanic and seismic activity.

The Great Barrier Reef off the coast of Australia is the largest coral reef system in the world, stretching over 2,300 kilometers (1,429 miles). It is composed of billions of tiny organisms called coral polyps.

The Earth’s mantle, located between the crust and the outer core, is a solid but viscous layer composed mainly of silicate minerals. It is divided into the upper and lower mantle, with the boundary known as the Gutenberg Discontinuity.

The Dead Sea, located between Israel and Jordan, is the lowest point on land, sitting more than 430 meters (1,410 feet) below sea level.

The largest recorded volcanic eruption in modern history occurred in 1815 when Mount Tambora in Indonesia erupted. The event resulted in a global cooling effect, causing the “Year Without a Summer” in 1816.

The Earth’s continents were once joined together in one supercontinent called Pangaea, which began to break apart around 175 million years ago.

The driest place on Earth is the Atacama Desert in Chile, where some areas have not received rainfall for centuries.

The Earth’s largest canyon is not on the surface but lies beneath the Antarctic ice sheet. The Gamburtsev Mountains are buried beneath kilometers of ice and were only discovered through radar mapping.

The largest known crystal, discovered in the Naica Mine in Mexico, measures about 12 meters (39 feet) in length and weighs 55 tons. It is made of gypsum.

The Earth’s tides are primarily caused by the gravitational pull of the Moon, but the Sun also contributes to their magnitude.

The longest recorded earthquake lasted for approximately 10 minutes and occurred in Russia in 1952.

The Great Blue Hole in Belize is the world’s largest underwater sinkhole, measuring about 300 meters (984 feet) across and 124 meters (407 feet) deep.

The Great Blue Hole in Belize

The Great Blue Hole in Belize

The deepest underground mine in the world is the Mponeng Gold Mine in South Africa, reaching a depth of 4 kilometers (2.5 miles).

The Earth experiences approximately 50,000 earthquakes each year (246 per day), but the majority of them are too small to be felt by humans.

The longest recorded glacier is the Lambert Glacier in Antarctica, stretching for about 400 kilometers (250 miles).

The Great Salt Lake in Utah, USA, is saltier than the ocean and one of the saltiest bodies of water on Earth. Its salinity can reach up to 27%.

The largest underground cave chamber in the world is the Sarawak Chamber in Malaysia, which is approximately 700 meters (2,300 feet) long, 400 meters (1,300 feet) wide, and 70 meters (230 feet) high.

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Human Babies

Babies have more bones than adults. They are born with about 300 bones, while adults have 206 due to the fusion of some bones as they grow.

A baby’s taste buds are more sensitive than those of adults. They can taste a wider range of flavors, which may explain why they can be picky eaters.

Newborn babies can recognize their mother’s voice from birth. They are also able to recognize familiar sounds they heard while in the womb.

Babies have a strong sense of smell. They can differentiate between their mother’s breast milk and that of another woman.

On average, a baby will triple its birth weight within the first year of life.

Newborn babies are nearsighted and can see objects clearly only at a close distance. They can see best at a distance of 8-12 inches, which is roughly the distance between their face and their mother’s while breastfeeding.

Babies don’t have kneecaps at birth. Instead, they have soft cartilage that eventually hardens into kneecaps as they grow.

The brain of a baby doubles in size during the first year of life.

Babies have a natural instinct for swimming and can hold their breath automatically underwater until about six months old.

A newborn baby can cry as soon as they are born. This helps clear their lungs and open up their airways.

Babies have a strong grip reflex. They can hold onto an object placed in their hand and can even support their body weight for a short time.

Babies have a unique grasping reflex known as the “palmar reflex,” where they instinctively hold onto objects that touch their palms.

Babies have more taste buds on their tongues than adults. They have around 10,000 taste buds compared to adults’ 2,000-4,000.

A baby’s head is proportionally larger compared to the rest of their body compared to adults. This is because the brain develops rapidly during the early years.

Babies are born with the ability to mimic facial expressions. They often imitate the expressions they see their parents making.

A baby’s heart beats faster than an adult’s. The average heart rate for a newborn is around 120-160 beats per minute.

Babies have a higher body surface area-to-weight ratio than adults, which makes them more susceptible to changes in temperature.

Newborn babies have more bones in their skull than adults. This allows for flexibility during birth and helps the skull to mold and pass through the birth canal.

Babies have a stronger sense of hearing than adults. They can hear higher frequencies and are more sensitive to sounds in general.

Babies are born with a natural instinct to suck. This reflex helps them to feed and find comfort.

A baby’s first social smile typically appears between 6-8 weeks of age. This is when they start to recognize and respond to their caregivers.

Newborn babies have a heightened sense of touch. They can feel pain, temperature, and pressure more intensely than adults.

Babies have more rapid eye movement (REM) sleep than adults. This is thought to contribute to their brain development.

A newborn baby has no control over their saliva and may drool frequently.

Babies have a natural preference for human faces and will often gaze longer at faces compared to other objects.

A baby’s immune system is not fully developed at birth. They receive antibodies from their mother through breast milk, which helps protect them against infections.

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Fire

A Japanese priest set a kimono on fire in Tokyo because it carried bad luck. The flames spread until over 10,000 buildings were destroyed and 100,000 people died. (Year: 1657)

When you burn copper, the flames are green.

When you burn cobalt, the flames are purple.

Alcohol flames can be clear or invisible.

Fire requires three elements to exist: fuel, oxygen, and heat. This is known as the “fire triangle.”

Fire spreads more rapidly uphill than downhill due to the preheating of fuel ahead of the flames.

Lightning strikes cause a significant number of wildfires. In fact, lightning is responsible for about 10% of all wildfires worldwide.

Fire tornadoes, also known as fire whirls, are a rare phenomenon that occurs when intense heat and turbulent winds combine to create a spinning vortex of flames.

Firefighters often use controlled burns, also known as prescribed fires, to manage ecosystems and reduce the risk of larger, uncontrolled wildfires.

The world’s longest-lasting wildfire, known as the Burning Mountain, has been burning underground in Australia for thousands of years.

Fire can move faster than you might expect. In certain conditions, wildfires can travel at speeds of up to 14 miles per hour (23 kilometers per hour).

Fire can create its own wind, known as a fire-induced wind or “firestorm.” This occurs when the intense heat causes the surrounding air to rise rapidly, pulling in cooler air and creating strong winds.

Flames always burn upwards due to the effects of convection. The hot gases and flames rise, drawing in more oxygen and fuel from below.

Ben Franklin’s original ‘Franklin stove’ was not what we think of as a Franklin Stove these days. Franklin stove has come to mean a woodstove with full-width metal doors. However, the original Franklin stove was a very weird thing that looked like a large egg on a pedestal. Air was sucked in through holes in the top, down through the fuel on a grate inside the egg, then passed through pipes under the floor, and finally up a chimney on the far side of the room. The hope was extreme efficiency not to mention warm flooring. However, this was a very difficult stove to light and maintain. Ben Franklin would not admit that his design was flawed. He said servants were ‘too stupid’ to work his stove.

Fire can cause the release of harmful pollutants and toxins, including carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, and particulate matter, which can have severe health effects.

Some plants and trees have evolved to depend on fire for their survival. They have thick bark or cones that require the intense heat of a fire to release their seeds and regenerate.

Firefighters often use fire shelters, which are small, portable tents made of fire-resistant materials, to protect themselves from intense heat and flames.

Fire can produce different types of smoke, depending on the fuel and conditions. Smoke can be thick and black, indicating incomplete combustion, or white and billowing, indicating a well-ventilated fire.

Fire can melt certain metals, such as aluminum and copper, at relatively low temperatures. This property has practical applications in metalworking and welding.

The temperature of a typical house fire can reach up to 1,100 degrees Fahrenheit (593 degrees Celsius) or higher.

The concept of “stop, drop, and roll” was developed to teach people how to extinguish flames on their clothing if they catch fire. The famous drummer and entrepreneur Travis Barker was told to stop, drop and roll by yelling bystanders when the airplane in which he was a passenger overshot the runway and burst into flames. Because of this, although he was severely injured, he did not die.

Firefighters use special thermal imaging cameras to locate hotspots and hidden fires by detecting the infrared radiation emitted by flames and heat.

Silly Laws Involving Fire

These are legal offenses, still on the books.

Do not burn “offal” in New York City.

In Oregon, it is illegal to go hunting for big game while it is on fire (Oregon Revised Statutes Section 164.305).

In Massachusetts, it is illegal to explode a nuclear device within city limits, except on Sundays (Massachusetts General Laws Chapter 22C, Section 6).

In Michigan, it is illegal to keep an alligator in a fire hydrant (Michigan Compiled Laws Section 750.49).

In Ohio, it is illegal to disrobe in front of a man’s portrait, except in cases of fire (Ohio Revised Code Section 2907.09).

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Water

Water can exist in the three common states of matter: solid (ice), liquid, and gas (steam).

Water is the only substance that can exist in all three states of matter within the range of temperatures found on Earth.

Water can also exist in a fourth state of matter called a “spin ice,” where the water molecules are arranged in a crystalline lattice.

Water is the most common substance on Earth, covering about 71% of the planet’s surface.

A single drop of water contains billions of water molecules.

Water has a high surface tension, which allows certain insects like water striders to walk on it.

Pure water is colorless, odorless, and tasteless, however it is said that cats can taste pure water.

The maximum density of water occurs at 4°C, which means that ice floats on water.

Water is the only substance that expands when it freezes.

The human body is about 60% water. An average person contains ten gallons (38 liters) of water.

Water can absorb more heat than many other substances, which makes it a good coolant.

Water is used in many industrial processes, such as power generation, manufacturing, and agriculture.

To grow the wheat for a single loaf of bread requires two tons of water (1,496 gallons or 5,663 liters) are needed.

The blood of mammals has the same dilution of salt as ocean water.

A person can survive for about a month without food, but only about a week without water.

The world’s largest waterfall is Angel Falls in Venezuela, which drops water from a height of 979 meters (3,212 feet – more than 1/2-mile).

The average American uses about 80-100 gallons (302 to 378 liters) of water per day.

Water is a polar molecule, which means it has a positive end and a negative end. They say water molecules are shipped like Mickey Mouse, with a round head, the oxygen, and two ears, the hydrogen atoms at a 104.5-degree angle to each other.

Microwave ovens take advantage of the shape of water molecules. At a 2.4 gigahertz (2.4 billion times per second) they reverse an electrical field. The water molecules try to align one way, then the other. All this movement creates heat. Since plastic, porcelain and many other materials do not have polar molecules, they do not heat up in the presence of an alternating field.

Water can be split into its constituent elements, hydrogen and oxygen, through a process called electrolysis. Electrolysis is done with direct current electricity. If you put electrodes in water, bubbles of oxygen and hydrogen will form around those electrodes. Engines can be powered by recombining hydrogen with oxygen, but so far, the process of electrolysis uses more energy than can be retrieved.

Water is essential for photosynthesis, the process by which plants convert sunlight into energy.

Scientists specializing in exobiology generally assume that lifeforms will require water, so life will probably not be found on a dry planet.

Sea water contains approximately 34 parts per thousand of salt.

The water cycle is the continuous movement of water between the Earth’s surface and atmosphere.

Water can be used to extinguish fires because it can absorb heat quickly and effectively.

Water can have a memory, according to a controversial theory called “water memory” proposed by French scientist Jacques Benveniste.

You can be cold when wet because water transfers heat from your body to the air more quickly than dry skin.

Water can form up to 15 different phases, including a liquid crystal phase.

Water has been found to have a surprisingly high surface tension in microgravity environments, which can affect the behavior of fluids in space.

The human body can sense the difference between hot and cold water much more accurately than it can sense differences in temperature for other substances such as steel, plastic and wood.

Water can conduct electricity even in the absence of dissolved ions, due to a phenomenon called “protonic conduction.”

Water has been found to exhibit strange quantum properties, such as “quantum tunneling” and “quantum entanglement.”

Water can be supercooled to extremely low temperatures without freezing, and can even exist as a liquid at temperatures as low as -40°C. Something needs to trigger formation of crystals (ice). Without that, water cannot freeze.

Water can be used to create “snowcrete,” a building material made from a mixture of snow and concrete.

Water can form a “chain” of hydrogen bonds that can stretch across large distances, allowing it to transport energy and information.

Water can be used to create a type of glass called “water glass,” which is made by melting silica in a solution of sodium carbonate and water.

Water can act as a natural lens, bending and distorting light to create mirages and other optical illusions.

Water can form a “bridge” between two surfaces, allowing them to stick together without the need for glue or other adhesives. If you’ve ever put a cover slip on a microscope slide, you’ve witnessed the effect.

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Electricity

Pictured above: Nikola Tesla in his Colorado Springs laboratory.

Benjamin Franklin originally named electricity “electrical fluid.”

The human brain uses the same amount of energy as a ten-watt lightbulb, or a string of 50 indoor Christmas lights.

A bolt of lightning can reach temperatures hotter than the surface of the sun.

An electric eel can generate a shock of up to 600 volts. Only around 40 volts is sufficient to kill a person if all circumstances are just right.

Every now and then people with wired phones would die from electrocution. A person might perch the phone on the edge of their bathtub. Then, the phone might fall into the bathtub while ringing with its 48 volts. Smartphones run on much lower voltages.

In 1752, Benjamin Franklin conducted his famous kite experiment to prove that lightning was a form of electricity.

Nikola Tesla once caused a power outage in Colorado Springs by overloading the electrical grid with his experiments. He could charge a room with so much static electricity that he could hold a lightbulb in his bare hands that would light up.

In a 1980 television show, popular astronomer Carl Sagan said, “All of the radio waves from space ever studied equal less than the power of a single snowflake hitting the ground.”

That wasn’t quite true then, but it was close. Today, with many more radio telescopes and many more years of collecting astronomical radio waves, the total power of all the waves studied from space is still much less than the energy your body used while you read this post.

The first electric power station was built in 1882 in London.

The electrical resistance of the human body can range from about 1,000 ohms to over 100,000 ohms.

Lightning strikes the earth about 100 times per second. At any given moment there are on average 180 thunderstorms around the earth.

The amount of electricity required to power a single toaster for an hour could power a smartphone for over a year.

The world’s largest battery, located in South Australia, can store enough electricity to power 30,000 homes for an hour.

Solar farms and wind farms are great for generating free electricity, but have a big weakness. What happens when the sun doesn’t shine or the wind doesn’t blow? To deal with that, we need batteries. Big batteries. One of the best kind of batteries is two lakes, one at a higher elevation than the other. During electrical production times, water can be pumped to the higher lake. When more electricity is needed, the water can flow to the lower lake through generators.

The electric motor was invented by Thomas Davenport in 1834.

The human body can generate a small electric current, which can be detected by an electrocardiogram (ECG) or an electroencephalogram (EEG).

In science demonstrations, lemons are often used as an electrical source to power a small electric motor or lightbulb.

Electric cars were first developed in the 1830s, but did not become popular until the 21st century. The batteries back then were incapable of powering the vehicles for more than a few miles.

A lightning bolt can contain up to one billion volts of electricity.

The first electric street lighting was installed in Paris in 1878.

Amps are a measure of volume, like water coming out of a large diameter hose. Volts are a measure of power, like water squirting a long distance out of a nozzle. Volts times amps equals watts.

Higher voltages can be transferred by wire greater distances than lower voltages.

Tesla was fascinated by alternating current, often at very high frequencies. Alternating means that the flow of the electricity keeps reversing from positive to negative, then negative to positive, etc. In the United States, that happens sixty times per second (60 Hertz). In Europe, it’s generally 50 cycles per second.

Mr. Tesla knew that the voltage in alternating current can be stepped up easily for transmission great distances then stepped back down at the destinations. At the same time, Thomas Edison was trying to convince the public that direct current, which he promoted, was superior. However his direct current had to be delivered at dangerously high voltages, or could only be transported a few city blocks.

To prove his point, which was actually incorrect, Edison executed an elephant and several dogs in front of big crowds in New York City. He used huge amounts of alternating current to kill the animals, while only a little direct current would have done the job.

Eventually, Nikola Tesla’s alternating current, along with the help of George Westinghouse, won out. However, Edison ended up making a fortune from all his patents for electrical and non-electrical items, while Nikola, a great engineer, but not a good businessman, ended up dying in poverty.

A person can be electrocuted by as little as 10 milliamps of electricity as long as the voltage is sufficient.

The first successful electric car was built by Thomas Parker in 1884.

The electric current in a household electrical outlet is typically 120 volts in the United States and 240 volts in Europe.

The first power transmission line, which delivered electricity from Niagara Falls to Buffalo, New York, was built in 1896.

One horsepower is 745 watts. However, since motors are not perfect in converting electricity into motion, it takes more than 745 watts to actually create one horsepower.

The first electric guitar was invented in 1931 by George Beauchamp.

The electric chair was first used in 1890 to execute a convicted murderer named William Kemmler. It was supposed to be more humane than hanging or decapitation.

The Tesla coil, invented by Nikola Tesla in 1891, is still used in musical instruments and other applications today.

The electric field around a wire is proportional to the amount of current flowing through it, and inversely proportional to the distance from the wire. With a tool called an ‘amp probe’ you can measure measure or monitor how much electricity an item is using.